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15篇文章貫通六級詞匯Unit13-Part2

[00:00.00]A dvertisements depict gender bias
[00:03.62]while promoting products.
[00:05.04]Looking at merchandise displays
[00:07.12]in any mall will reveal that
[00:09.75]a picture of a juvenile lad would
[00:12.26]be near construction equipment
[00:13.57]while an ad for perfume
[00:15.21]would likely show a female.
[00:16.75]The drawback of this seemingly innocent way
[00:20.68]of displaying merchandise is that
[00:22.98]they tend to affirm the bias
[00:24.84]of the individuals who design them.
[00:26.48]This is a serious flaw.
[00:29.11]Maybe the intent was not to be exclusive
[00:32.39]but that is the end result
[00:34.14]of the message that is evoked,
[00:35.56]whether subliminal or overt.
[00:38.08]An alternate way of viewing the world,
[00:40.81]with either both genders portrayed
[00:43.44]or neither with the items,
[00:44.97]may seem bizarre but marketing specialists
[00:48.25]have been applauded
[00:49.46]for making the effort to do so.
[00:51.21]The hypothesis has been suggested
[00:54.16]that if this practise were widespread
[00:57.01]it would facilitate a change
[00:59.30]for the better in the values
[01:01.27]that are embedded in our society.
[01:03.24]When you read a biography
[01:05.98]in a newspaper in a metropolitan area,
[01:08.61]you will find that different words
[01:10.79]are used to describe males and females.
[01:13.20]In almost any literary work,
[01:16.26]personal appearance is seldom mentioned
[01:19.11]when describing males,
[01:20.64]but commonly used
[01:22.72]when a female is the subject of the article.
[01:25.12]Forms of address that are considered proper
[01:29.28]to use are also discriminatory.
[01:31.83]Males are always referred to as
[01:34.56] Mr. (except a very young lad
[01:37.41]might be addressed as Master).
[01:39.05]There are several forms of abbreviations
[01:42.44]to use before the name of a female.
[01:44.19]It is permissible to use Mrs.,
[01:46.93]Miss, or Ms.
[01:48.79]The choice of abbreviation
[01:50.97]is by personal preference
[01:52.51]of the person being addressed
[01:54.48]but they have different meanings.
[01:56.12]Mrs. is used to signify a married woman.
[02:00.17]Miss means an unmarried or single woman.
[02:03.89]Ms. could mean either
[02:06.40]and is the choice of many women
[02:08.15]because it does not reveal their marital status.
[02:10.56]How strange that society feels
[02:14.06]it is necessary to be able
[02:16.03]to deduce a woman's marital status
[02:18.00]from her name by providing
[02:19.64]this form of definitive identification.
[02:22.16]A man could be married
[02:24.45]or could be a bachelor
[02:25.88]and one is not able
[02:27.73]to ascertain his marital status from his name.
[02:30.03]Why, then, is it necessary
[02:32.77]to differentiate between a woman
[02:35.18]who is married and one who is not?
[02:37.04]Many of the cases of sexual harassment
[02:41.42]that are dealt with in corporations
[02:43.28]are a result of stereotyping.
[02:45.35]Usually the person
[02:47.98]who is the alleged harasser is a male
[02:50.60]who supervises females.
[02:52.46]Males have been taught by society
[02:55.20]that they are the privileged gender
[02:57.28]and have power over any female.
[02:59.25]This is the basis
[03:01.24]behind most incidents of harassment.
[03:04.08]How strange that intelligent men feel entitled
[03:08.02]to take advantage of females
[03:09.77]in a subordinate position.
[03:11.53]To heighten awareness,
[03:13.94]forums or symposiums are held
[03:17.11]to enlighten people about the importance
[03:19.81]of using inclusive language
[03:21.66]but may people still resist changing.
[03:24.19]Some people are determined that
[03:27.68]the word man also includes woman.
[03:29.76]Sometimes the meaning does incorporate women
[03:33.16]and sometimes it doesn?t.
[03:35.01]However, many woman insist that
[03:38.84]they are never quite sure of the meaning
[03:40.70]and suggest that the word humanity
[03:42.67]should be used instead
[03:45.08]when the intended meaning is both men
[03:46.83]and women and then
[03:49.46]there would be no confusion.
[03:50.54]It is incomprehensible to others
[03:53.83]why they refuse to change.
[03:55.58]A booklet or pamphlet is available
[03:59.30]for reference in most work places
[04:01.70]to help people use inclusive language
[04:03.79]in any writing in the workplace.
[04:05.64]Some government offices have produced a leaflet
[04:09.59]that can be used by companies
[04:11.44]that do not have the impetus
[04:13.09]or the resources to design their own.
[04:15.38]Studies about gender differences
[04:19.10]have suggested a hypothesis
[04:21.51]that females have better verbal skills,
[04:24.02]while males excel at tasks
[04:26.32]requiring the ability to visualize.
[04:28.62]Conclusions of many of the studies have proved
[04:33.22]it invalid and found instead
[04:35.40]the differences between the genders
[04:37.37]to be almost nil. T
[04:39.23]here are, however, notable differences
[04:43.50]between individuals regardless of their gender.
[04:46.24]The absurd criterion for
[04:49.52]judging a person's ability based on
[04:51.81]their gender needs to be abolished.
[04:53.56]Until this is seen as being abnormal,
[04:56.63]the attempt to updated attitudes
[04:59.03]without removing the underlying cause
[05:01.11]of the societal values will be useless.
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